Anal i ome i e in Biling al ed ca ion: A ca e d abo

Wal ham D al Lang age Elemen a School

In od c ion

Wi h he de elo men of b ine and oli ic , em lo ee need o de elo

m l iling al com e ence, and mo e and mo e immig a ion ha fo ced man co n ie

o deal i h he ed ca ion of child en ho come f om o he co n ie and e o he

lang age . A he ame ime, mino i lang age ha been e ed o di a ea ing ch

a indigeno lang age in man co n ie , Ba e, Mao i. Beca e of he e fac o ,

mo e and mo e co n ie ha e he e on ibili o ake mea e o ol e he e i e ,

and he adi ional lang age ed ca ion face challenge (Lindholm-Lea , 2001).

Mean hile, a he la ge immig an co n in he o ld, he Uni ed S a e i

ine i abl facing he e oblem . In o de o ol e he e oblem , biling al chool

ha e been e abli hed in man lace in he Uni ed S a e . Ho e e , he e biling al

chool ha e al o od ced ome i e . Thi a e ill anal e ome i e hich

a e faced b biling al chool b foc ing on a biling al chool hich i called

Wal ham D al Lang age Elemen a School in he Uni ed S a e and o o e ome

ol ion .

Backg o nd of d al ed ca ion in Ma ach e

Ma ach e i he mo o lo a e in he Ne England egion of he

no hea e n Uni ed S a e and i i al o a egion he e he ne immig an a e

concen a ed. Ca e illo-Ponce and K ame (2006) a e ha in he la fe ea , he

i e of immig an ha g o n ignifican l in hi a e. The 2000 cen e o aid

ha he immig a ion o la ion of hi a e inc ea ed b 35 e cen . Ca e illo-Ponce

and K ame (2006) al o oin o ha he g o h of he fo eign-bo n o la ion in

Ma ach e i mainl com o ed of La in Ame ica immig an and Ca ibbean

immig an and a mall n mbe of A ian and Af ican . Acco ding o

Lindholm-Lea (2001), changing in he o la ion of immig an affec lang age

ed ca ion. Monoling al ed ca ion canno a i fied he need of non-Engli h eake .

Addi ionall , man of he e immig an a e child en o ad l ho ha e child en, and

hen he e child en en e chool he eak a li le Engli h o ome do no e en eak

Engli h a all. Mean hile, The o la ion of La in Ame ica acco n fo he

e cen age of 30 of he immig an o la ion (Ca e illo-Ponce and K ame , 2006), o

o- hi d of child en eak S ani h and he did no eak Engli h a home. The e

immig an e e no able o eak Engli h, hich b o gh incon enience o hei

li e , o he go e nmen began o e abli h biling al chool , hich co ld hel

immig an in eg a e in o Ame ican ocie . Addi ionall , in chool, eo le of

diffe en ace and diffe en c l e ga he oge he o lea n and comm nica e

oge he . Thi b ing a m l ic l al a mo he e o he chool and b ing

con adic ion and colli ion , hich a e ca ed b c l al diffe ence . I i eci e

beca e of hi m l ic l al fac o ha i diffic l o e i and canno be elimina ed,

biling al ed ca ion came in o being in e on e o he e i emen of he

de elo men of he ime. F he mo e, mo e and mo e Engli h- eaking a en ook

in o acco n he ocial effec and o en ial o e i of ne immig an and

a em ed o enco age hei child en in a ide ange of biling al ed ca ion. Thi

b o gh g ea ace fo he de elo men of d al ed ca ion in he Uni ed S a e .

Some olicie of he Ma ach e go e nmen abo d al lang age ed ca ion

In Ma ach e , mo Engli h-lang age lea ne a e S ani h eaking, and he

acco n fo 70 e cen of he o al n mbe of Engli h-lang age lea ne , follo ed b

Po g e e eake , and Khme o Vie name e eake (De Jong e al., 2005).

Addi ionall , hi a e an o omo e global ade and economic de elo men b

d al lang age and bili e ac . Beca e of he e ea on , he Sena e and Ho e of

Re e en a i e in Gene al Co of Ma ach e fo m la e ome olicie , fo

e am le, he fi i he D al Lang age Ed ca ion P og am Ac . Thi ac aim o

e abli h a biling al ed ca ion c ic l m office i hin he Mini of P ima and

Seconda Ed ca ion, and o omo e and e and he biling al ed ca ion of

Common eal h; he econd i Office of D al Lang age Ed ca ional P og am . Thi

olic mean ha he ill e an office of d al lang age ed ca ion og am in he

de a men of elemen a and econda ed ca ion. Thi office can o ide echnical

a i ance o d al lang age ed ca ional og am . In addi ion, hi office hall ec i

alified d al lang age eache fo all og am of hi a e; The hi d i he a e

e abli h he S a e Seal of Bili e ac o g ad a e ho ha e achie ed a high le el of

oficienc in eaking, eading and i ing in one o mo e lang age (incl ding

Engli h). Mo eo e , he check he anda d if he den ha a ained b ome

ofe ional e am (Wal , 2013). The e olicie no onl o ide e o ce a i ance

b al o o ide echnical o o d al lang age chool . The o ided

ofe ional biling al eache fo chool , hich can en e he ali of eache .

A he ame ime, a dedica ed office can al o hel ol e he lack of e o ce of d al

lang age ed ca ion chool .

Backg o nd of chool

Wal ham D al Lang age Elemen a School i loca ed in Ma ach e . Thei

den a e f om di e e backg o nd ch a A ian, S ani h, E o e. Since mo of

he den a e f om S ani h- eaking familie and he goal of hi chool i hel ing

den ha e a ong a ecia ion fo m l ic l ali m and become c l all

com e en lea ne ( . al ham blic chool .o g/d allang age), he each in

S ani h and Engli h. The c l i a e den o be biling al and bili e a e in Engli h

and in S ani h and enco age den o demon a e high le el of academic

achie emen in bo h lang age . In o de o enhance he biling al abili of den ,

hi chool e an o gani a ion hich i named The Wal ham D al Lang age Pa en

Teache O gani a ion. Thi o gani a ion i a non- ofi o gani a ion, and i made

of a en , eache and chool admini a o f om he Wal ham D al Lang age

School i h he mi ion of o king oge he o o ide an e ce ional d al

imme ion ed ca ion og am i h e cellen o o ni ie fo hei den

( . al ham blic chool .o g/d allang age). In addi ion, hi o gani a ion of en

hold ome a ie ch a D al Lang age Welcome Back Pa and Lang age

E change. The aim of he e ac i i ie i o hel a en o im o e he biling al

abili of hei child en.

Some i e of Wal ham D al Lang age Elemen a School

D al lang age ed ca ion can c l i a e den o g a len of kno ledge of he

d al lang age and he abili of in e c l al comm nica ion. Mean hile, he

omo ion of he abili of biling al lang age b oaden he channel fo den o

gain acce o a eal h of kno ledge and o ide ling i ic a i ance in de elo ing

hei abili o collec , o gani e, anal e and j dge ele an info ma ion. Ho e e , in

he o e a ion of he Wal ham D al Lang age Elemen a School, ome i e ha e

a i en.

The fi i e i he ho age of ofe ional biling al eache . The e a e o ea on

fo he ho age of ofe ional d al eache . Fi , high anda d, Kenned (2018)

e o ha biling al eache no onl need o ha e he kill needed fo gene al

ed ca ion eache b al o S ani h ha i ell- e a ed fo clea and a ge ed

aining in o he ke kill a ea , hen he choo e a alified eache , he ima

de e mina ion i ha biling al eache candida e ha e he e i ed S ani h and

li e ac kill . Secondl , among he e candida e , he highl eciali ed kill

e i ed fo effec i e e ice in a biling al eaching en i onmen a e de elo ed. In

hi i a ion, alified biling al eache a e ha d o be ec i ed and c l i a ed;

Second, inc ea ing he n mbe of immig an . Dia -Rico and Smi h (1994) ill a e

ha in Califo nia, he e i a lo of he o la ion of den ho can no eak

Engli h i h limi ed Engli h oficienc . School-age child en of ling i ic mino i ie ,

e eciall ho e ho eak S ani h, ill emain a a high le el indefini el . The

en ollmen of den i h ling i ic mino i ie i ill con in ing inc ea ing in blic

d al chool . The e i e ca e ome ignifican im ac on chool and den . In

e e al chool o e en d al lang age chool of Ma ach e , he n mbe and

ali of biling al eache ho ha e eaching e e ience and hold ele an

ce ifica e a e diffic l o a i f he need of den . Mo eo e , he c l al and

ling i ic backg o nd of den i mo e di e e, hich make he con adic ion

be een l and demand of eache . When face hi i e, chool migh ake

ac ion o elie e he infl ence hich i ca ed b hi oblem ch a in o de o

ed ce he need fo eache , he inc ea e he i e of cla . In hi ca e, he e a e

mo e den in a cla han befo e, and i i diffic l fo eache o ake ca e of

e e den , hich ma lead o a ide ga be een den ; Beca e of he lack of

eache , he cancel ome co e o ec i ho – e m eache o a ange eache

f om o he field (S che , 2016). Ho e e , fo den , ince ome eache f om

o he field each ome co e , and he a e no e e in hi field and he a e no

oficien in ome ofe ional kno ledge, hi ill nde mine he ali of

ed ca ion. A he ame ime, den canno ge ofe ional ed ca ion. Thi doe no

benefi hei biling al ed ca ion. In addi ion, The e ho – e m eache a e no

familia i h he c en le el of den and he i a ion of each den .

Mean hile, den al o need o end ime o ge ac ain ed i h he eaching

me hod of eache , hich ha a bad infl ence on den lea ning.

The econd i e i he lack of in c ional ma e ial . The Wal ham D al Lang age

Elemen a School lack S ani h e book . The do no ha e eno gh book o

o ce i en in S ani h and of a e in S ani h. Aimed o hi i e, C dena

(1993) a e ha al ho gh ome in e o in e in biling al in c ional ma e ial ,

he e ma e ial ill ha e man ho coming . Beca e of he limi ed ma ke , e book

bli he a e no illing o in e in ma e ial in an lang age o he han Engli h,

incl ding efe ence ma e ial and lemen a . F he mo e, E ce fo ba ic

eading ma e ial and ba ic a i hme ic, he e a e fe e bli he a e illing o

o biling al ed ca ion. In o de o ol e hi i e, man d al lang age chool

im o e book f om ab oad o he e chool hi e ni e i lang age ofe o o

an la e Engli h e book in o S ani h. Fo im o ed ma e ial , he ha e ob io

ad an age ch a he can hel den g a he o iginal a ea ance of cien ific

kno ledge in fo eign e book . The no onl e en he omi ion, di o ion,

inacc ac and mi nde anding in he oce of he an la ion b al o enable

den o face he fo eign lang age c e, a lica ion and cha ac e i ic

eg la i o im o e he com ehen i e abili of fo eign lang age of den

(Zhao, 2008). Ho e e , C dena (1993) de c ibe ha ome im o ed ma e ial a e

no i ed fo Engli h- eaking den , beca e ome ma e ial lack a o ia e

c l al e e en a ion, leading den o be conf ed and mi nde anding. Zhao

(2008) al o oin o ha he o iginal e book canno be combined i h he ac al

i a ion in Ame ica, and he a e le com a ible i h o he ofe ional co e .

Mo eo e , ome o iginal e book a e no i able fo llab e i emen of

Wal ham D al Lang age Elemen a School. Since o iginal e book ha e a ide

ange of con en , den canno ma e hem i hin he e c ibed ime; T an la ed

ma e ial efe o an la e he na i e lang age e book in o fo eign lang age , o

an la e fo eign lang age e book in o na i e lang age. The e an la ed ma e ial

combine local llab and c l al backg o nd o hel den be e nde and he

e book and lang age . Ne e hele , Sa (2015) men ion ha ome lang age

ofe o lack o he ofe ional e e i e, o he a e no alified fo he

an la ion of ofe ional e book . In addi ion, ofe ional kno ledge eache a e

nable o com le e he an la ion o k moo hl d e o he limi a ion of he le el of

lang age. Mo eo e , man e cellen o iginal e book ha e lo hei o iginal

cohe ence and logical af e an la ion, and ome an la ion e book a e no clea

abo he e e ion of ofe ional kno ledge. The e ea on ha e led o a lack of

e cellen fo eign lang age e book in he ma ke .

The hi d i e i a ac ing den . The Wal ham D al Lang age Elemen a

School find ha he canno en oll eno gh den , hich lead o he chool o

ed ce he n mbe of cla e . Biling al ed ca ion ha al a been con o e ial, and

he e a e e e al o o ing oice in ocie , and he a i de of he go e nmen

o a d biling al ed ca ion i no clea , o mo e and mo e a en a e illing o

choo e a adi ional chool. Fo biling al ed ca ion, he o fac o ie ha e had fie ce

di e . Tho e ho in fa o of biling al ed ca ion belie e ha he e a e man

immig an in he Uni ed S a e , and i i nece a , ea onable and effec i e o

im lemen biling al ed ca ion fo non-Engli h eaking child en. A he ame ime,

he em ha i e he in iolabili of he igh of o he lang age and ba ic h man

igh . The o ha im lemen ing biling al ed ca ion i he ad ocac of

m l ic l ali m. B con a , he o o i ion em ha i ed he a imila ion and

mel ing o e of ne immig a ion. In addi ion, biling al ed ca ion doe no

benefi fo non-Engli h eak den o lea n Engli h. F om a oli ical e ec i e,

i omo e he ole of na ional cohe ion of nified official lang age and i

im o ance o ocie and c l e. In addi ion, he go e nmen fo m la ed ome

olicie o o o i e biling al ed ca ion. Tang (1999) ill a e ha Califo nia he e

immig an a e mo e concen a ed. La in Ame ican eenage end a long ime in

eaking S ani h in comm ni ie he e he li e, hich con ib e o mo e han 70

e cen of den ha e no kno ledge of Engli h hen he fi en o chool.

The efo e, Califo nia eg la ed biling al ed ca ion in blic chool , and he

em ha i ed on eaching main bjec in hei na i e lang age hen den a e

lea ning Engli h. Ho e e , a en e e no a i fied i h hi olic , and ome

a en had blicl bo co ed ome biling al ed ca ion og am im lemen ed b

chool , and ome a en e en ef ed o end hei child en o chool. The belie ed

ha al ho gh he biling al ed ca ion of Califo nia co ed nea l 400 million U.S

dolla e ea , i a diffic l fo immig an den ho a e ed ca ed b biling al

ed ca ion o im o e hei Engli h oficienc . The e a en al o o ed ha

biling al ed ca ion i nei he cien ific no effec i e, and he be a o lea n

Engli h i o he child en in he Engli h en i onmen . A a e l of bo co ing,

in 1998, Califo nia o e a ed he o o i ion Engli h onl d af , and hi d af

ohibi blic chool f om offe ing biling al ed ca ion i ho a a e e em ion.

Biling al ed ca ion co e failed o a i f he need of lang age mino i den

o im o e hei le el of Engli h and make hem e fo m ell in chool . In addi ion,

biling al ed ca ion had led o a decline in Engli h e co e . In hi ca e, Califo nia

fo m la ed hi d af (Lee,2016). D e o he a i de of he blic o a d biling al

ed ca ion and nclea olicie , ome a en a e ke ical abo biling al ed ca ion,

o ome of hem choo e o end hei child en o adi ional chool . Thi i a ion i

no cond ci e o he en ollmen of biling al chool . Since ome biling al chool

canno en oll eno gh den , he ha e o h ink cla .

Some gge ion fo ol ing he e i e

Aimed a he fi i e named ho age of ofe ional biling al eache . The

Wal ham D al Lang age Elemen a School fi l can anal i and e amine he

ea on fo he S ani h biling al eache ho age, hich can hel hi chool o ec i

mo e ofe ional eache . A he ame ime, he Ma ach e go e nmen can al o

make ome effo ch a (a) Reg la ing ome ed ca ional olicie mean o cla if

he ce ifica ion e i emen and anda d of biling al eache , incl ding

ec i men c i e ia. Thi can iden if and adj o elimina e ba ie o he o en ial

of candida e of a i ing biling al eache ; (b) Ma ach e go e nmen can lea n

f om he e e ience of Califo nia. The go e nmen of Califo nia offe ed financial aid

o elimina e he ho age of biling al eache . The offe 10 million dolla o hel

highe ed ca ion in i ion o de elo a fo – ea e a a ion co e fo biling al

eache and he e co e allo nde g ad a e o ea n deg ee of bachelo and

eaching ce ifica e i hin fo ea . In addi ion, he e co e ill allo candida e

o en e he cla a oon a o ible d ing he oce of ed ca ion (Ca e -Thoma

& Da ling-Hammond, 2017); (c) The Ma ach e go e nmen can o ide

chola hi o a ac college den in o he ind of biling al eache , hich

can ed ce he economic e e of den ho an o be a biling al eache and

f om lo -income familie . (d) The Ma ach e go e nmen al o can lea n f om

A alia. In o de o o e come he ho age of alified biling al eache , he

A alia go e nmen ec i ed e e al immig an ofe ional o hel hem. The e

ell-ed ca ed and alified o e ea biling al eache ma o ide den a be e

ed ca ion and al o elie e he e e of ho age of alified biling al eache

(Han, 2010).

Fo he lack of in c ional ma e ial , he fi gge ion i he Wal ham D al

Lang age Elemen a School can o gani e ofe ional eache ho ha e died in

S ani h. Acco ding o he cha ac e i ic of den , he na ional c l e and eaching

llab , he can i e d al lang age ma e ial in S ani h and Engli h. Af e

fini hed, he can in i e S ani h e e o e ie he man c i o en e he

ali of he ma e ial ; The econd gge ion i den e S ani h-lang age

e book i h Engli h an la ion. I can no onl make den no com le el el

on he an la ion b al o nde and he con en of he e book ell. I no

highligh he cha ac e i ic of S ani h e book b al o ake in o acco n he

ac al Engli h le el of den (Zhao, 2008).

Fo he la i e i a ac ing den . Changing olicie and a i de of he blic

o a d biling al ed ca ion infl ence he choice of a en and en ollmen of den .

Fi l , he Ma ach e go e nmen ho ld inc ea e he o aganda of biling al

ed ca ion o le mo e eo le nde and he me i of biling al ed ca ion. Secondl ,

he Wal ham D al Lang age Elemen a School ho ld de elo i c ic l m. Since

e e al non-Engli h eaking den canno eak Engli h oficienc , hi chool

co ld change hei me hod of eaching o c ea e Engli h-onl cla o hold ome

ac i i ie ch a o comm nica e i h neighbo ho eak Engli h. Thi dl , he

Wal ham D al Lang age Elemen a School co ld di ide each cla i h half of he

den ho a e Engli h eaking and half ho a e S ani h eaking, and he can

gi e a i ance o each o he o de elo hei S ani h and Engli h le el.

Concl ion

D al lang age ed ca ion ha e e al benefi . Beca e den can eak S ani h

and Engli h, and he can con e he lang age, hei me hod of hinking abo

e ion a e mo e fle ible. In addi ion, biling al den can ead and hink in o

diffe en lang age , hich hel hem o im o e he le el of ab ac hinking.

Biling al ed ca ion al o a i immig an o ada o he en i onmen and be e

in eg a e in o ocie . Ho e e , d ing he o e a ion of biling al chool , he e a e

ill man challenge ai ing o be ol ed ch a he ho age of alified eache ,

lack of in c ional ma e ial , a ac ing den , lacking he o of olicie and

he a i de of he blic. In o de o ol e he e i e , chool and go e nmen ill

need mo e effo , fo e am le, im o ing he anda d of eache , gi ing mo e f nd

o o he c l i a e of alified d al lang age eache and fo m la ing mo e

olicie o o biling al ed ca ion . So he e challenge need a long e m o ol e,

and he al o need he join effo of he go e nmen and he chool.

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&filename=HLJG200807051& =MDg1MTR6aFY3ck9MU0hCYWJHNEh0bk1

STlBWllSOGVYMU 1eFlTN0RoMVQ cVR V00 RnJDVVJMT2ZZdV Rn

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