Comment by Karen Kidder: Ensure there are numbers in the top right-hand corner of every page in the paper.Thank you for taking on this topic! There are some concepts missing in your paper. Please see my comments on the attached paper. It needs more specific regarding the seriousness of the problem. You need a clear synthesis of the literature, rather than address the individual articles. There are APA issues, primarily with spacing, but the format of the references needs to be corrected also. You are very wordy in much of the paper, and being concise would help to make your points more clear. Be sure to indent paragraphs. You have good ideas, and I am happy to work with you and review the comments I made. I would encourage you to use Grammarly also, and the assay submission service described in our course resources. Please let me know how I can help. Your topic is so important; it needs to be clearly described.

Education Interventions Preventing and Reducing STDs




March 2022

Education Interventions Preventing and Reducing STDs

Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs) have been a health practice problem representing a social determinant in the general population, especially young adults. The purpose of this paper is to review and synthesize evidence research literature that supports education as an evidence-based intervention for the prevention and reduction of sexually transmitted diseases. The report will examine the significance of the problem at the national level and outline support evidence and rationales for intervention.Comment by Karen Kidder: Comment by Karen Kidder: You must indent the first sentence of a paragraph.Comment by Karen Kidder: Can you explain this a bit more, please?Comment by Karen Kidder: This whole page should be only double-spaced. Remove the extra spaces between sections.

Significance of the Problem at National Level

The rate of Sexually Transmitted Diseases is a severe public health concern at the national level. The impact of the diseases cannot be ignored, and families and the government are spending a lot to take care of the infected and the affected (Cyr et al., 2020). The nation is losing its product quality because skilled and competent people get infected and can no longer work like they used to. Family members also leave work or become less productive because they spend a lot of time taking care of their loved ones. The health implications are significant, despite the government investing a lot of money in healthcare organizations to offer the best care to patients. Comment by Karen Kidder: Provide some information on the prevalence please, so we can appreciate how serious the problem is. This is very general information. Comment by Karen Kidder: Do you have a source for this? It seems unusual to relate this to STDs.

Synthesis of Evidence three Studies

The three studies provide valuable insights that can be used to inform decisions. There is evidence that a knowledge deficit puts people at the risk of irresponsibility and vulnerability to infections (Skelly et al., 2018). When people have access to educative materials and programs, they are less vulnerable because they engage in healthy behaviors. For example, someone who understands the possible causes of the transmission of STDs, such as unsafe sex, will choose to have safe sex and have few sexual partners (El-Bassel et al., 2019). This is contrary to a less knowledgeable person and may go around with several partners without protection, which increases the chances of contracting STDs. Educative programs are effective, especially sexual health promotions, according to (Gunn & Klaussner, 2019). The evidence above provides an opportunity to address the practice problem using education programs. Since there is a knowledge deficit, a gap can be filled by giving appropriate sexual education information, testing, and treatment. Since the primary concern is sustainability, the evidence challenges stakeholders to ensure these programs are as sustainable as possible. Before implementing these strategies, it is essential to put together all the required resources to ensure the programs are long-lasting.

Synthesis of Literature

Literature poses that information and educative programs have evolved. At the beginning of the 20th century, education was used to warn the public against irresponsible sexual and medication behaviors. The education interventions also targeted case identification and management. Over time, the focus of education programs shifted to screening and education (Nguyen et al., 2019). People who have access to information can quickly go for screening, and once the results are determined, they will adopt a responsible behavior to prevent or manage the infection. The literature identifies three primary education programs; behavior change programs, community development, and social marketing.

Existing literature argues that education programs are effective, especially those tailored towards behavior change. When people are informed, they are more likely to be responsible and embrace positive social behavior, including practicing safe sex and reducing the number of sexual partners (Shapiro & Brown, 2018). Infected patients become more accountable for medication adherence and general lifestyle. However, there are concerns about the sustainability of these programs; when the programs are short-lived, the behavior change is also short-lived.

Main Points/ ThemesComment by Karen Kidder: These main themes need to be related to all the literature, and that literature must be cited.

One of the main themes that cut across the studies is that education is directly linked to behavior. Creating awareness and educating the population makes them more conscious of their behavior. People who have access to information are less likely to be involved in risky behavior such as unprotected sex and having multiple sexual partners. For those already infected, education makes them focus on the quality of life by adhering to medication, proper nutrition, exercising, and engaging in all activities that would make them live a better life.

Another evident theme is a knowledge deficit among the vulnerable population, increasing their risk of contracting the diseases or not getting proper treatment when infected. The theme is like what previous literature has posed. That is why educative programs still stand out as the best option for preventing and treating sexually transmitted diseases. Bringing information accessible to these populations makes it easier to address the practice problem.

Another evident theme is the need for sustainability of these education programs for better outcomes. It is easier to start and implement a program, but its effectiveness fades with time when these programs cannot be sustained. The issue of sustainability has been mentioned by other scholars too. Implementing a new strategy in many cases is exciting, but the programs cannot be sustained due to a lack of resources such as funds. In the long run, the population goes back to their previous risky behaviors, which exposes them to diseases.

Compare/ContrastComment by Karen Kidder: What are the differences between the studies?

All the sources of evidence pose that health education programs play a significant role in the prevention and treatment of Sexually Transmitted Diseases. All the sources link education to positive social behavior reduces the risk of getting infected. Access to educative programs will make the populations reduce their sexual activities and minimize unprotected sex (El-Bessel et al., 2019). While (Skelly et al. 2018) states that education maintains positive behavior. The same theme is reinforced by (Gunn & Klaussner, 2019), who believes that sexual health promotions promote healthy behavior and improve quality of life.

Support for Evidence

The notable reductions in the number of new STDs infections in Florida and national level are attributed to comprehensive educative interventions. People have been capacitated to make safer sexual choices. They have also learned to improve their quality of life throw through health prevention. Therefore, the evidence is valid. Comment by Karen Kidder: Provide a source for this information.

The rationale of the Intervention

Education interventions were selected for this DNP project because they have proven effective in preventing and reducing Sexually Transmitted Diseases. These interventions will put people in a better place to make good decisions regarding their sexual life and other risky behaviors that may lead to contracting STDs. Creating awareness and educating the community will increase their likelihood of having safe sex. Education interventions can encourage patients exposed or infected with STDs to go for screening and treatment, reducing the incidence and rates of new infections and helping stop STDs transmission into the community. In conclusion, education will help people perceive health matters differently and do things within their reach to better their quality of life.

ReferencesComment by Karen Kidder: This whole page should be only double-spaced. Please refer to the APA guidelines in our course resources.

Cyr, S. S., Barbee, L., Workowski, K. A., Bachmann, L. H., Pham, C., Schlanger, K., … & Thorpe, P. (2020). Update to CDC's treatment guidelines for gonococcal infection, 2020. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, 69(50), 1911.Comment by Karen Kidder: With only 10 authors, there is no need for the ellipse. All authors should be listed up to 20.Comment by Karen Kidder: Italicize each journal name and volume.

El-Bassel, N., Gilbert, L., Goddard-Eckrich, D., Chang, M., Wu, E., Goodwin, S., … & Hunt, T. (2019). A randomized clinical trial is the effectiveness of a couple-based HIV and sexually transmitted infection prevention intervention for men in community supervision programs and their female sexual partners. JAMA network open, 2(3), e191139-e191139.

Gunn, R. A., & Klausner, J. D. (2019). Enhancing the control of syphilis among men who have sex with men by focusing on acute infectious primary syphilis and core transmission groups. Sexually transmitted diseases, 46(10), 629.

Nguyen, S. H., Dang, A. K., Vu, G. T., Nguyen, C. T., Le, T. H. T., Truong, N. T., … & Ho, R. (2019). Lack of knowledge about sexually transmitted diseases (STDs): Implications for prevention and care among dermatology patients in an urban city in Vietnam. International journal of environmental research and public health, 16(6), 1080.

Skelly, C., Hall, C., Risher, C., & Brown, B. (2018). Peer-to-Peer Education of College Females on Sexual Health. Universal Journal of Educational Research, 6(5), 844-847.

Shapiro, S., & Brown, C. (2018). Sex Education Standards across the States. Center for American progress.

Johns Hopkins Nursing Evidence-Based PracticeComment by Karen Kidder: Label this Appendix, and refer to it in the narrative.

Appendix G: Individual Evidence Summary Tool

The Johns Hopkins Hospital/ The Johns Hopkins University

Practice Question: Do young adults with high-risk sexual behavior who start sexual education programs, compared with young adults not in the program, improve sexual behavior and STDs prevention within the eight weeks of initiating education?

Date: March 12, 2022

Article Number

Author and Date

Evidence Type

Sample, Sample Size, Setting

Findings That Help Answer the EBP Question

Observable Measures


Evidence Level, Quality


El-Bassel, 2019


An RCT was conducted from July 2013 to May 2016. The participants were 230 couples recruited from several CSP sites in New York.

-There are fewer incidences of unprotected sex among couples after attending an educative session.

-They also reduce the sexual activities and partners compared to the rest of the population.

Self-reported data.

Sexual behaviors.

The results may not truly represent the whole population.

Evidence level I

Very Good quality.


Skelly, 2018


Sixty-nine participants

were drawn from Central Florida Private University. They completed a questionnaire on peer-to-peer sexual health education.

Female undergraduate students have sexual knowledge deficit.

Peer education on sexual health can help students maintain positive sexual behavior.




The study focused on female students only.

The sample was also drawn from one institution, a single setting, and there is no assurance that the results can be applied to another location.

Evidence Level III

Good quality


Gunn, 2019

Meta-analyses of RCTs.

Sixty-three studies were used for the analysis (59 795 participants). The studies were searched manually and electronically.

Sexual health promotions are effective in the prevention and treatment of STDs.

Educative interventions should focus on long-term efficacy in biological and behavioral measures.

Behavioral changes.

There is a likelihood of subjectivity.

Publication biases.

Evidence Level 1

Good quality

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